Celebrating the Women Behind International Women in Engineering Day

Wednesday, June 23 marks the 5th International Women in Engineering Day (IWED), and this year’s theme, “Engineering Heroes,” provides the perfect opportunity to recognize and honor some of the trailblazing women who paved the way for the female engineers of today.

IWED was initially created by the Women’s Engineering Society (WES) of the United Kingdom, which had in turn been established on June 23, 1919. Since the majority of male engineers had been called to military service during World War I, it became necessary for women to fill vacant positions in the field. It was the first time in modern history that women were actively encouraged to pursue STEM careers, but that incitement was short-lived.

After the war ended, government officials, employers, and trade unions pushed for women to relinquish their titles in favor of the returning servicemen, and the Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act 1919 forced many of them to do so, unwillingly. A stubborn few, refusing to go down without a fight, established the WES in defiance, and it has been continually inspiring, supporting, and serving women engineers for over 100 years – but who exactly were those founding women?

Rachel Parsons / electrifyingwomen.org
The Hon. Lady Katharine Parsons / en.wikipedia.org
Lady Margaret Moir / Mary Evans Print Online
Laura Annie Wilson / en.wikipedia.org

 

Rachel Parsons, first president of the WES: Daughter of Sir Charles Parsons and Lady Katherine Parsons, Rachel Parsons was a descendant of the Anglo-Irish earls of Rosse, who had long been known for their brilliance and ingenuity. Much like her ancestors, her iconoclastic nature preceded her. In 1910, she became the first woman to read Mechanical Sciences at Cambridge University, and she sailed the Atlantic aboard the Mauretania, a record-breaking ship designed by her inventive father.

As one of the founding members of the WES, Parsons designated herself the group’s maiden leader. She was later elected to the London County Council, and as a pioneer of feminism, stood for Parliament in the election of 1923, at a time when there were only two female Members of Parliament (MPs).

The Hon. Lady Katharine Parsons: Lady Parsons, nee Bethell, met her husband, the noted inventor Charles Parsons, while he was working as an engineer in Leeds. She took a keen interest in his work, eventually becoming an engineer in her own right. She was a suffragette of northeast England, and aside from co-founding the WES in 1919 (and later becoming its second president), she became the first female member of the North East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders (NECIES) that same year.

Lady Margaret Moir, Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE): Lady Moir, like her associate Lady Parsons, called herself “an engineer by marriage.” She worked in tandem with her husband, the renowned engineer Ernest Moir, whom she met during one of her frequent trips to see the Forth Bridge’s caisson foundations.

During the war effort, she organized a band of Women Relief Munition Workers and worked tirelessly as a founding member of the WES to set up training courses for women engineers. She was the president of the Electrical Association for Women, and also served the WES both as a vice president and a president, notably saying in her 1928 inaugural speech: “It is now relatively simple for the girl to go through the technical school or college education, and with her wits as bright as any man, obtain a degree in Engineering.”

Laura Annie Willson, Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE): Willson, who worked from the age of 10 in a textile factory, climbed the ladder to become a founding member of the WES and its president from 1926 to 1928; in addition to these roles, she was also the first female member of the Federation of House Builders and the branch secretary of the Women’s Labour League.

An unyielding suffragette, she was twice imprisoned for her political engagements: once in 1907 for “inciting persons to commit a breach of the peace” during a weaver’s strike at Hebden Bridge, and then again just a few weeks later, when she took part in a suffragette rally at Caxton Hall.

Banner courtesy of the Women's Engineering Society.

African-American Pioneers in Engineering You Should Know About

 

Walter Braithwaite / Seattle Times
Howard Grant / BridgeBizSTEM.wordpress.com
George Biddle Kelley / blog.adafruit.com
Elijah Mccoy / Wikipedia.org

 

February is African-American History Month. As such, it is the perfect opportunity to highlight the engineering achievements of African-Americans who, although they may have contended with racism, societal inequality, and discrimination, worked hard to overcome obstacles and accomplished great things in the field of engineering.

Walter Brathwaite, an American engineer who was born in Jamaica, was hired by Boeing in 1966. As Senior Engineer, he led the team that invented CAD systems for designing commercial Boeing aircraft. Over the years, Brathwaite rose through the ranks, eventually becoming President of Boeing Africa. When he retired in 2003, he was the highest ranking African-American executive of the company.

Howard P. Grant graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1948, making him the first African-American to graduate from the Berkeley College of Engineering. That same year, Grant also became the first known black member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He subsequently became the first African-American civil engineer for the City and County of San Francisco and the second African-American civil engineer to be licensed by California. He worked in the San Francisco water department until 1984, and also held the position of president and treasurer of the California Society of Professional Engineers.

George Biddle Kelley graduated from Cornell University's College of Civil Engineering in 1908. He went on to become the first African-American engineer registered in the state of New York. He was hired by the New York Engineering Department, where he worked on the Barge Canal, a collection of state waterways, during the 1920s.

Elijah McCoy was born in Canada in 1844 to runaway slaves who had escaped Kentucky thought the Underground Railroad. At the age of 15, he moved to Edinburgh, Scotland for an apprenticeship. There he became certified in mechanical engineering. Upon leaving Scotland, he moved to Michigan, where his family was now living. After being unable to find engineering work in Michigan because of his race, he found work as a fireman with the Michigan Central Railroad. Part of his duties included oiling the steam engine parts. Soon McCoy had invented an automatic engine lubricator, which meant that trains were no longer required to stop for lubrication. The lubrication could now occur while the train was moving. As news of the invention spread, many inventors attempted to create their own version of the automatic lubricator. However, it was soon discovered that McCoy’s invention was superior. It is said that railway engineers began requested “the real McCoy” lubricator. McCoy filed a total of almost 60 patents, including designs for an ironing board, a lawn sprinkler, and other machines.

Engineers Who Have Contributed to the Development of Aviation

November is National Aviation History Month. While we may be focused on the upcoming holidays, many people are fascinated with aviation and the pioneers who’ve contributed to and helped shape aviation in today’s society.

If you’ve ever wondered about the first pioneer engineers behind aviation, read on.

In the early days, prior to designing and executing the first flight, engineers conducted many experiments and extensive research to determine the four component forces that enabled design and/or flying of an aircraft, which are thrust, lift, drag, and weight. This was the birth of aeronautical technology.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), “aeronautical engineers work with aircraft. They are involved primarily in designing aircraft and propulsion systems and in studying the aerodynamic performance of aircraft and construction materials. They work with the theory, technology, and practice of flight within the Earth’s atmosphere.”

The following aeronautical engineers are some of the pioneers who changed aviation history:

  • Jules Henri Giffard studied the notes of an inventor named Pierre Jullien who display a cigar-shaped model airship at the Paris Hippodrome. Jullien’s design helped Giffard became the first person to build a full-size airship;
  • Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright are known for executing the first flight, which lasted 12 seconds;
  • Charles Lindbergh is known for performing the first solo transatlantic flight; and
  • Amelia Earhart is a known aviation pioneer and was the first solo female aviator to complete a transatlantic flight.

For more information about aviation pioneers, visit: https://www.britannica.com/technology/aerospace-engineering

Image by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)